The only difference is automation. A filter is just a setting, which can be changed but is usually a set-and-forget type thing. An envelope filter is a filter that changes according to the parameters specified by the envelope, ie how fast the attack is, the decay rate, and the resonance. Sometimes you'll see a sustain thrown in there as well, which is why on most synthesizers there's either ADR or ADSR envelope filtration.
Am Std. Strat (Lace Sensors Gold/Silver/Blue, GFS Delay Mod Board) -> Pignose Detonator > Ibanez TS7 (TS9 setting) > Ibanez TS7 (Hot setting) > Rocktron Vertigo > Danelectro Reel Echo > Vox Valvetronix AD50VT